PCB Fabrication and Soldering

pcbPCB fabrication does not stop with the etching of the pattern, or the circuit. For the PCB to fully function and do things such as compute numbers, receive inputs, display images, and store data, components such as transistors, resistors, capacitors, integrated circuits, LEDs (light emitting diodes), and switches must be mounted and connected together via soldering. Soldering glues the components and the copper foil together with a stick of lead that is heated with a soldering iron.

Careful soldering must be done to prevent damage to the conductive foil and render the entire PCB inoperative. Skilled hands, therefore, play an important part in the successful soldering. These skilled hands are also important in PCB fabrication, since a specific and intricate pattern must be created with closely-followed procedures.

Small-scale or homebrew soldering is done with a 30- to 40-watt soldering iron, which is available in hardware stores. For industrial-scale soldering, higher-wattage irons are used. Soldering irons come in various tips and are made with copper coated with iron or tin. Copper is an excellent conductor of electricity and heat, while iron and tin are hardeners that make the tip last longer. To ensure a stable heat transfer, clean the tip regularly. If the tip is full of dirt and oxidation, replace it with a new one.

Soldering errors can be corrected without replacing the entire PCB and redoing the PCB fabrication process again. The correction is done with a desolderer, which is a special tool that either sucks the molten lead like a vacuum cleaner or blows it away from the PCB.

Another important tool in soldering a PCB is the soldering aid. It is a bladed, pointed, and double-ended stick that serves many purposes: to remove excess solder from soldered joints, to get rid of insulation around the terminal that will be soldered, to separate soldered joints that were joined by accident, and to act as a heat sink for the component’s terminals during the soldering process.

The solder is the adhesive for the components’ terminals and the conductive copper and is usually made of an alloy that is composed of 60% tin and 40% lead. Inside the alloy is a semi-liquid flux which disintegrates the oxide and helps the alloy bind to the metals of the terminals and the foil.

One step that is done between the PCB fabrication process and the soldering of components is the drilling of holes into the finished PCB. These holes, where the components’ terminals will be inserted to, are called donuts. These terminals can be interchanged with the terms leads and wires.

Drilling the donuts can be done manually for homebrew PCBs by using a drill, a vertical drill stand, and small drill bits. Automatic drilling, which involves programming a drilling pattern, is done by PCB manufacturers and is therefore more expensive.

Before the actual soldering, one must ensure proper and consistent clearance when installing the components into the board. Installation is done by inserting the components’ terminals into the PCB’s donuts.
To start soldering, the person performing the soldering must heat both the lead and the donut evenly for 3 to 5 seconds and then apply the solder to the meeting point of the two, which is located underneath the board, until the solder flows to the foil. Overheating is unacceptable. Otherwise, the foil might be damaged. The performer then removes the iron once enough solder has been applied, and the solder is left to cool down.

Once all the components have been soldered, the excess terminal wires are cut off. Finally, the soldered PCB must be checked for cold solder, or short circuits caused by the solder overflow.

Author Bio:
Pcbnet provides Printed Circuit Boards,fabrication and Pc design. From prototype to production of single, double,and multilayer PC Boards.

Top Five Characteristics of TaylorMade Golf Clubs that Make Them Popular among Golfers

Any experienced golfer certainly has heard of TaylorMade golf clubs and gears. As a household name in this sport, many golfers invest by having several TaylorMade clubs in their bags ready for action and eventually became their favorite clubs. TaylorMade received praise because of its following characteristics:

Innovation marked on each piece

The golf gear brand has marked all its pieces using innovations that contribute to players’ success while playing. Since the brand’s establishments, TaylorMade presented technological advancements on golf clubs and other gears never thought possible during that time. The company’s professionals continue to improve these technologies to make it work perfectly for the player, particularly with the changes that occurred in the sport after several years.

GolfEvery TaylorMade golf club is engineered with high quality construction on different types of clubs. The company also released several series with their respective characteristics designed for every player looking the best club to use for their games. Among the latest innovations integrated in today’s clubs include Thrust slot technology and speed pocket. These components work together in producing consistent ball speed, distance and height. Using both of these technologies contributes to effective launch and gaining better scores in the process.

Genius designs

One of the good things about TaylorMade golf clubs is their designs look classy using different materials while making it look slightly rugged with the innovative components that contribute to their performance. Its designs make each club look like portable machines that players will love to keep in their bags for a long time.

In addition to possessing effective designs for performance, TaylorMade clubs are also difficult to counterfeit because of its overall construction. Their designs are very detailed that copying will be tricky. This helps save golfers from investing on identical clubs, but without the right features to perform flawlessly as the original.

Top driver option among professionals

After establishing its name in the industry, TaylorMade also became the most used driver at the US Open, a prestigious competition among professional golfers for more than 10 years now. These players make a living playing and winning golf competitions, training every day, and gearing up with the finest golf clubs available in the market. Drivers are among the important clubs to use and their club line-up with the best ones to ensure a good start.

Ideal for every playing style

TaylorMade has numerous clubs with varying technological advancements. While having various designs, the brand still made sure that the clubs are perfect for everyone with varying playing style. Regardless of the swing speed players want to achieve, a right TaylorMade golf club is available to exceed their expectations.

Aside from swing speed, TaylorMade also has the right club that will work even for novice players. A TaylorMade club’s engineering gives it an appeal designed for professionals, but many novice players were able to find its products work effectively for them.

Complete golf gears available

Tailor-made’s clubs are superb in its own right. Nevertheless, the company also offers a long range of golf gears that players can invest. Gears include golf bags, accessories, travel gears, golf balls, putters and many more. Numerous individuals wish to obtain these gears from the same brand because of its established quality. Their impression is if Tailor-made’s clubs are superior to others, they can be confident that its other gears will have the same quality.

With technology and quality combined, TaylorMade golf clubs deserve to be a household brand in the sport. Their features are worth investing that most golfers decide to obtain these pieces for their own games. Buyers can also choose from a long list of club series that will work for them effectively.

Author Bio:
Rockbottomgolf and Burner golf clubs, balls, apparel, and accessories are only the latest incarnation of TaylorMade Golf promise of improvement and perfection in everything they sell.

Start a new hobby collecting custom coins

Would you like to be an exonumist?

Although it may sound like a job title from a morgue, it actually has something to do with a fun hobby. An exonumist is a person who engages in exonumia or the hobby of collecting tokens and novelty coins that are not used as currency.

Custom_CoinsThe other items you may collect include wooden nickels, casino chips, badges, encased coins, medallions, counterstamped coins, elongated coins, and all forms of custom coins or personalized coins. Simply put, exonomists like to get their hands on any coin-like item that shares characteristics with typical coins, but are not government-issued.

If this is the first time you’ve ever heard of this hobby, you might be wondering what the point is in collecting coins that are not even accepted in monetary exchange.

To answer this question, consider the concept of intrinsic and perceived value. Gold or silver coins in and of themselves have value because they are made of precious metal. However, non-legal tender coins also have a form of perceived value; worth is attributed to that object based on how the market values it. If a group of people place high value on military coins or commemorative coins because they are rare and produced in remembrance of an important time in history, then the objects take on that value. You will find serious collectors willing to shell out serious cash for them.

Thus, custom coins are tokens that preserve a part of history and culture. If your collection is well preserved, you may pass this on to your children as sort of like a family heirloom. Many years down the line when they have their worth validated they may even end up in a museum for many generations to appreciate.

Before starting your collection, consider the different kinds of custom coins. You have military coins, police coins, and fire department coins. Usually those who commission such coins are proud of their branch of service. They want a token to symbolize the dedication and commitment their members have in service, and so they might have a coin made bearing the insignia of their department. The bearers of these coins carry them around with great pride, and are used to recognize affiliation.

Corporate coins are much the same way. Business owners have them made to commemorate a milestone event or to show the company’s dedication and commitment to service. These coins often have the company logo on it or the theme of an anniversary or the event. The coins are given away as mementos to celebrate the employee’s achievements in that organization.

coinsThere are other types of custom coins besides these but the ones mentioned above are the more common ones. Basically any coin that has a design made following the preferences of the client is such a coin. You might even have one made for yourself for marketing gimmicks, a giveaway at a celebratory event such as an important birthday (especially for senior people who have reached unusually long lives), wedding anniversaries or even a baptismal. What matters is that the lettering, colors and design are beautifully crafted into your choice of metal and is worthy of being a keepsake.

If you had a chance to collect such coins and put them together in your own collection, then you can display them proudly at home and pass them down to your children and grandchildren to remember all the ideals and important events that these coins signify.

Medical Uses of Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin

The hormone Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin is naturally produced during pregnancy. It supports the normal development of an egg in a woman’s ovary. It is made by cells that later on form the placenta. This hormone is supposedly naturally formed inside a woman’s body during pregnancy but due to its increasing number of significant roles, many licensed pharmacies have decided to compound it.

Human chorionic gonadotrophin is now synthetically produced because it is proven to have medical uses. These medical uses might still be limited but they already helped a lot of people, especially in cases of infertility and puberty-related hypogonadism. Some athletes even use this to hide the presence of the prohibited substances they take.

Fertility Troubles

Medical Uses of HCGHCG or human chorionic gonadotrophin is also a significant part of many infertility treatments. This hormone is given through injection to help the body make the hormones needed for egg or sperm cell production. In women, this hormone is used to stimulate ovulation in order to prepare the body for treatment and to hasten the release of healthy eggs. In men, HCG increases the production of testosterone and follicle-stimulating hormone, promoting the formation of sperm cells. This can be injected either into your muscle or under your skin.

Puberty Dilemma

Hypogonadism is a rare disease where there is a delay in growth and puberty. This is a condition where childhood is prolonged and so, it can adversely affect the testes and ovaries. It can be inherited or may come from conditions like excessive weight loss and stress; it could also be triggered with the use of drugs such as anabolic steroids.

Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) is a condition in which there are abnormally low levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). These two hormones crucial for sperm production are secreted by the pituitary gland. Human chorionic gonadotrophin, a hormone produced by the placenta during pregnancy, can help stimulate sperm production in men with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. HCG not only increases the amounts of testosterone and follicle-stimulating hormone. It can also help restore secondary sex characteristics. This hormone is a big help in inducing puberty among adolescents, especially in males.

Athletic Issues

Athletes also use human chorionic gonadotrophin to minimize some of the side effects brought by steroid intake. This is to manipulate testosterone levels since HCG can help increase its production. Anabolic steroids can boost an athlete’s performance. They also use this to bulk up their bodies. Using this kind of substance is now strictly prohibited. Athletes also use HCG to disguise the presence of these synthetic testosterones that came from steroids. This is why even the use of HCG is now banned in the Olympics.

HCG can be really helpful if people only know how to use it properly. It is a big help to those couples who have infertility issues. Adolescents who suffer Hypoginadism are also thankful that they have this kind of hormonal treatment. The effectiveness of HCG can only be achieved if it is properly used – this includes getting a prescription. You have to know first the correct procedures before undergoing this kind of treatment. So, it’d also be a must to discuss this thoroughly with a physician.

Avoid purchasing HCG illegally. Using the hormone to cover up one’s intake of prohibited substances is also a big no-no. This can send you to jail. Like other treatments, HCG also comes with certain side effects. If you have a doctor’s prescription, you will be guided accordingly on how to treat these side effects. Using them illegally can threaten your life. Don’t risk your health. If you’re going to do it, at least do it right.

HCG is a significant part of many infertility treatments. For more details visit 1hcgdrops.